About St. Peter's Basilica
You can have a look at various monuments and sculptures created by many talented legendary artists. The most famous among them are the baldachin, Michelangelo’s Pietà by Bernini, a statue of St. Longinus, the tomb of Urban VIII, and the bronze cathedral of St. Peter.
St. Peter’s Basilica used to be the tallest building at the time it was built and presently, it is the church with the tallest dome in the world. The great height of the building provides a beautiful view of the entire city.
The art in and around the church is unique and every part has a history of its own, conveying the visitors the story and richness of Christianity and Rome.
It has also been associated with a number of artists, especially Michelangelo. With so much to witness and so much to click, St. Peter’s Basilica indeed makes for a recommended visit in the Vatican.
How to Reach St. Peter's Basilica
The nearest airport to St. Peter’s Basilica is Fiumicino, which is located at an approximate distance of around 32.5 kilometers from the basilica. Here are the 3 ways to reach the basilica from the airport.
From here, you can cover a walkable distance of only 1.2 kilometers to arrive at St. Peter’s Basilica in just 10 to 14 minutes.
- By Road: You can take a cab from Fiumicino airport and reach St. Peter’s Basilica in no more than just 26 minutes.
- By Bus: Unfortunately, there isn’t any direct bus available from Fiumicino airport to St. Peter’s Basilica.
But, you can catch a bus from Fiumicino Piazza Generale Carlo Alberto dalla Chiesa and reach Cavalleggeri/Gregorio Vii through C.ne Aurelia/Madonna Del Riposo. From here, you can cover a walkable distance of only 789 meters to arrive at St. Peter’s Basilica in just 9 minutes.
Best Time to Visit St. Peter's Basilica
Usually, there is a long queue of visitors at St. Peter’s Basilica in the morning and afternoon. So, if you want to avoid the rush and enjoy your tour, the best timing is either early in the morning, before 9 a.m. or late evening, after 4 p.m.
Also, keep an extra day in hand while planning a visit to the place and avoid visiting the basilica on the last day of your trip.
What Not to Miss at St. Peter's Basilica
If you are on a trip to Rome to visit the St. Peter’s Basilica, keep at least 2-3 days in hand for that purpose. But also make time to visit other exciting places near the basilica.
The Vatican is a magnificent pilgrimage and tourist site, with numerous historical buildings around. Following are some of the places near St. Peter’s Basilica that you must visit:
1. Piazza Navona: This place is filled with colourful and beautiful street arts, hawkers, mansion baroque palazzi, ornamented fountains, etc. The main attraction here is fountain trio, Fontana Dei Quattro Fiumi, Moor fountain and the Neptune fountain.
2. The Roman Colosseum: It is the largest amphitheatres in the world and it attracts a lot of history and nature lovers.
3. The Trevi fountain: It is one of the oldest water sources of the city and is also the largest fountain here. It is a must to go place to complete a Rome trip. It was made with the same material as was used for the Colosseum.
4. Palatine Hill: It is located between the famous seven hills of Rome. It is the most ancient part of Rome and is an attraction for nature lovers.
5. Galleria Borghese: This place is one of the most crowded tourist locations in Rome. It is an art gallery and displays works of various great artists.
6. Spanish Steps: It is also known as Scalina Spagna and gives a beautiful example of Roman Baroque Style. It has a total of 138 steps to climb.
7. Roman Forum: It was originally an Etruscan burial ground and it represents Rome before the fall of the Roman Empire.
8. Villa Borghese Gardens: This place is a must-visit for nature lovers as it is filled with gardens and beautiful scenic views.
9. Pantheon: It is an Ancient Roman monument that has still been well preserved. Originally it was a temple and many visitors still frequent this place. It has a beautiful ‘fountain of Pantheon’ at the front and a giant magnificent dome.
Other Essential Information About St. Peter's Basilica
Location: St. Peter’s Basilica is located on top of the Vatican Hill, across the Tiber river, at the centre of historic Rome.
Opening Hours: Following are the opening hours of all the different buildings at St. Peter’s Basilica:
Entry Fee: The entry fee for every building is different and the following are the details-
Distance from nearest Airport: Leonardo da Vinci International Airport is the nearest airport to St. Peter’s Basilica and it is located at an approximate distance of 21 km from it.
History of St. Peter’s Basilica
It is believed that St. Peter was one of the 12 Apostles of Jesus, and to honour him, Emperor Constantine decided to have a basilica built at the site where St. Peter’s grave was supposedly buried.
The construction of the basilica was started in 1506 and was finished in the year 1615. It is in the form of a three-aisled Latin church and has a dome built at the crossing, directly over the high-altar, covering the shrine of St. Peter.
The new basilica was completed in almost 120 years with the help of best architects from the Roman Renaissance and Baroque period. Many other architects were called in for consultations about design and construction.
But the main masterminds behind the basilica are Raphael, Bramante, Donato, Michelangelo, Maderno and Giacomo Della Porta.
The Building of St. Peter’s Basilica
St. Peter’s Basilica is the largest church in the world, with a very impressive design. Its nave is 211.5 meters long and if we include the narthex, it becomes 694 feet. The dome has a diameter of 42.34 meters and is 132.5 meters high. It is the largest dome in the world. Carlo Maderno created the travertine front facade of St. Peter’s Basilica.
He made slight changes in the original design made by Michelangelo and widened the narthex to 114.7 meters. He also changed the location of the massive columns from the front of the building and placed them against the walls.
The facade itself is 45.5 meters high and has statues of Jesus, John the Baptist, and the Apostles, except for St. Peter, on top of it and the statues are 5.7 meters tall. It also has huge clocks on both sides which are supported by the angels.
Giuseppe Valadier added the clocks in the early nineteenth century and also decorated them with ornaments and papal crest. Church bells are placed below the clocks on the left side.The narthex or the lobby of the church can be reached by any of the 5 entrances.
It has equestrian statues of Charles the Great and Emperor Constantine, both created by Bernini. The five doors lead from narthex to the nave of the basilica. Filarete, a Florentine sculptor and architect, created a central bronze door for the old basilica in the fifteenth century. Porta Santa, the holy door, is located on the right and is opened only once every twenty-five years.
The catholic church was very wealthy in the sixteenth and seventeenth century.
The nave also has many large monuments, and many of them were created by the greatest artist world has known, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. There is an enormous bronze baldachin over the papal altar, which is twenty-six meters in height and again the work of Bernini. It is one of the main attractions for visitors from all around the world.
The bronze used in creating the Baroque masterpiece was taken from the ceiling and pediment of the Pantheon. The marble columns that adorn the crypt of the old basilica were used as an inspiration for the spiralling columns in the nave of the new basilica.
The point where the pillars meet the dome creates a triangle shape and is adorned with evangelists depicting mosaics. It has sixteen windows and numerous lanterns below the cornice for perfect lighting. Huge niches are built in the pillars and they hold statues of Saint Andrew, Saint Veronica, Saint Helena and Saint Longinus. All these statues are 5 meters in height.
The pillar of Longinus statue has a backdrop of St. Peter’s bronze statue. This statue is presumed to be the work of a thirteenth-century sculptor and architect, Arnolfo di Cambio. The Cathedra Petri, which is supposed to be the chair of St. Peter is located in the apse of the basilica and is decorated with Baroque work.
Numerous angels surround the large oval window just above the throne, giving it a majestic look. The chair encapsulates a bronze throne, with reliefs supported by the fathers of four churches. The Eastern church is represented by Athanasius and Johannes, and the Western church is represented by Ambrose and Augustine.
The other statues around the skeleton represent virtues. The tomb of Innocent VII is also there in St. Peter’s and it was sculpted in the year 1498 by Antonio del Pollaiolo. It is the one and only papal tomb transferred from the original basilica.
The entrance of Museo Storico-Artistico, meaning entrance not free, is in the front of the left transept. It is also called the Tesoro or the treasury. It displays various historic crucifixes and objects from the old church.
Sacre Grotte or Grotte Vaticane, a necropolis, is located below the nave of the basilica, and it has graves of more than 100 popes in there. It is also open for visitors and can be reached through the stairs near the statue of Saint Longinus.
The Dome and Viewing platform
The most majestic part of the basilica is its dome, which is 42.34 meters in diameter. Michelangelo is the designer for this masterpiece and it rests on four massive pillars that are five-sided. There is a cylindrical drum on top of the pillars and it has sixteen large windows and it also supports the ribbed vault.
There is a huge lantern at the oculus, where all the ribs in the vault come together. The double Corinthian pillars decorate the outer side of the drum and the lantern. At the base of the lantern is a viewing platform which provides an unparalleled view of Rome.
A bird’s eye view of the church’s interior can also be enjoyed from the galleries inside and the galleries have a long, spiralling and narrow staircase, which can be used to reach the dome top. The stairs have an entry fee and an uneasy climb, but the view from up there is magnificent.
Facts About St. Peter’s Basilica
There are some facts about St. Peter’s Basilica that make it an even more interesting pilgrimage and tourist site in the world.
3. The holy door in St. Peter’s Basilica is usually cemented shut and is opened only once after every twenty-years i.e., for Jubilee Years. All the time besides this, they are prevented from being opened, even accidentally.
4. The most famous work of Michelangelo, Pieta, is protected by a bulletproof glass inside the St. Peter’s Basilica. It is ruined to some extent after a visitor once attacked it with a hammer and tried to destroy the sculptor.
5. Michelangelo carved this beautiful monument from a single slab of marble. He signed his name over the chest area of Mary after hearing rumours of other artists getting attribution for his work.
6. There are 140 statues of saints, standing on the colonnades, in the courtyard outside the basilica. All these statues were placed here in the year 1670 and are 3.10 meters tall.
7. The smallest army of the world, the Swiss Guard was formed in the year 1506 to protect the Pope, The Vatican, and the St. Peter’s Basilica.
8. The basilica has been the center of Christianity since its construction.
Tips for visiting St. Peter’s Basilica
Some important tips to make your trip comfortable and enjoyable:
1. If you are visiting St. Peter’s Basilica for the first time, get a guide for yourself or rent an audio guide from inside the kiosk to know important facts and details about every part you see.
2. Make sure that you follow the dress code, otherwise you will be denied entry into the basilica.
3. Many parts have an entrance fee and application procedures, so be prepared in advance or ask your guide to arrange things for you in advance.
4. There are also some parts for which you will need to get in touch with the Excavations Office and apply for a visit. The applications should be made a minimum of 2 months prior to the actual trip.